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The ocean has a significant effect on the biosphere. Oceanic evaporation, as a phase of the water cycle, is the source of most rainfall, and ocean temperatures determine climate and wind patterns that affect life on land. Life within the ocean evolved 3 billion years prior to life on land. Both the depth and the distance from shore strongly influence the biodiversity of plants and animals present in each region.
The World Ocean is a continuous water "blanket" over the Earth adjacent to all of the continents and islands and possesses a generally salty structure.
In the Northern Hemisphere, the World Ocean occupies 61% of the area and in the Southern Hemisphere, 81%. If we were able to arbitrarily divide the Globe into two equal parts so that in one hemisphere the land predominated, and the other in the water, water will appear to cover more than half of the area (53%). The oceanic hemisphere takes takes up about 91% of the area. The land and sea are also non-uniformly distributed on the planet. Land predominates only between latitudes of 45 ° N and 70 ° N, and to the south, from latitude 70 ° S to the South Pole. Water predominates over the remaining part of the Globe. The shapes of the shorelines, bottom relief, systems of oceanic currents, tides, atmospheric circulation, and a number of other criteria subdivide the World Ocean over the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian and Arctic Oceans.
With the broadening of knowledge about Antarctic waters as a unified, physical-geographical area, some scientists now separate the waters surrounding the Antarctic continent, an area of 86 million km2, into a different water body: the Southern Ocean. Although widely used in scientific and other literature, the term "Southern Ocean" has not yet received official status.