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A helicopter is an aircraft that is supported and driven by one or more horizontal rotors, each consisting of two or more blades. Helicopters are classified as rotary-wing aircraft to distinguish them from fixed-wing aircraft because the helicopter blades create lift with rotating around a vertical axis. The word ''helicopter'' is derived from the French term hélicoptère, coined by the aviation pioneer Gustave Ponton d''Amécourt in 1863 from the Greek word ελικόπτερος, helix/helik- (propeller) and pteron (wing) .1 2
The main advantage is given by the helicopter rotor, which provides lift without the aircraft is moving, this allows vertical takeoffs and landings without track. For this reason, helicopters are often used in congested or isolated areas where planes can not take off or land. The lift of the rotor also allows the helicopter to keep flying in a much more efficient way than could other aircraft VTOL (vertical takeoff and landing), and being able to accomplish tasks that fixed-wing aircraft could not.
The idea of the helicopter is much earlier than the autogyro invented by Spanish Juan de la Cierva, aircraft which has only some external similarity. However, the first helicopters paid patent rights to use the articulated rotor, original Spanish engineer. They also took ideas Italian genius Leonardo da Vinci, but the inventor of the first helicopter was piloted and Slovak Jan motorized Bahyl. The first aircraft in flight and fully controllable chain produced was manufactured by Igor Sikorsky in 1942.
Compared with other types of aircraft like plane, helicopter is much more complex, has a higher cost of manufacture, use and maintenance, is relatively slow flight has less autonomy and less capacity. However, these disadvantages are offset by other characteristics, such as its high maneuverability and the ability to remain static in the air, turn on itself and take off and land vertically. Failure to consider issues such as the possibility of refueling or load limitations and altitude, a helicopter can travel anywhere and land on any site that has enough surface area (twice that occupied by the device).